Cancer Marker Blood Testing
What are the different types of laboratory tests?
A combination of tests are required to accurately diagnose cancer and early detection is vital. The complete evaluation of a patient usually requires a thorough history and physical examination along with diagnostic testing. Many tests are needed to determine whether a person has cancer, or if another condition (such as an infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer. Effective diagnostic testing is used to confirm or eliminate the presence of disease, monitor the disease process, and to plan for and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Clinical chemistry uses chemical processes to measure levels of chemical components in body fluids and tissues. The most common specimens used in clinical chemistry are blood and urine. Many different tests exist to detect and measure almost any type of chemical component in blood or urine. Components may include blood glucose, electrolytes, enzymes, hormones, lipids (fats), other metabolic substances, and proteins.
Highlight: Cancer Markers
Functional Assessment of: Potential Cancer Markers
Indicated For: Individuals who wish to work preventively in their health & longevity
The following are some of the more common laboratory tests:
A variety of blood tests are used to check the levels of substances in the blood that indicate how healthy the body is and whether infection is present. For example, blood tests revealing elevated levels of waste products, such as creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN), indicate that the kidneys are not working efficiently to filter those substances out. Other tests check the presence of electrolytes – chemical compounds such as sodium and potassium that are critical to the body’s healthy functioning. Coagulation studies determine how quickly the blood clots.
A complete blood count (CBC) measures the size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood. This is one of the most common tests performed. Red blood cells are important for carrying oxygen and fighting anemia and fatigue; the hemoglobin portion of the CBC measures the oxygen carrying capacity of the red blood cells while the hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. White blood cells fight infection. Increased numbers of white blood cells, therefore, may indicate the presence of an infection. Platelets prevent the body from bleeding and bruising easily.
Urinalysis breaks down the components of urine to check for the presence of drugs, blood, protein, and other substances. Blood in the urine (hematuria) may be the result of a benign (noncancerous) condition, but it can also indicate an infection or other problem. High levels of protein in the urine (proteinuria) may indicate a kidney or cardiovascular problem.
Tumor markers are substances either released by cancer cells into the blood or urine or substances created by the body in response to cancer cells. Tumor markers are used to evaluate how well a patient has responded to treatment and to check for tumor recurrence. Research is currently being conducted on the role of tumor markers in detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancers.
- According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), tumor markers are useful in identifying potential problems, but they must be used with other tests for the following reasons:
- People with benign conditions may also have elevated levels of these substances in their blood.
- Not every person with a tumor has tumor markers.
- Some tumor markers are not specific to any one type of tumor.
- What are the different types of laboratory tests?
- Blood Tests:
- Tumor Markers
- Commonly Used Tumor Markers:
- Alpha-Fetaprotein (AFP)-Liver,Ovary, Testicle
- Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)- Colorectal
- CA 15-3- Breast, Ovary, Lung, Prostate
- CA 19-9- Colon, Stomach, Bile Duct, Pancreas
- CA 27-29- Breast, Colon, Stomach, Kidney, Lung , Ovary, Pancreas, Uterus, Liver
- CA 125- Ovarian
- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)- Testis, Ovary, Liver, Stomach, Pancreas, Lung
- Lactate Dehydrogenase(LDH)-Cancer
- Neuron -Specific Enolase ( NSE)-Neuroblastoma, Lung
- Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)-Prostate
- Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP)- Prostate, Testicular, Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Commonly Used Tumor Markers:
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)- Colorectal
CA 15-3- Breast, Ovary, Lung, Prostate
CA 19-9- Colon, Stomach, Bile Duct, Pancreas
CA 27-29- Breast, Colon, Stomach, Kidney, Lung , Ovary, Pancreas, Uterus, Liver
CA 125- Ovarian
Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of elevated CA 125, but cancers of the uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract can also raise CA 125 levels. Several noncancerous conditions can also elevate CA 125. CA 125 is mainly used to monitor the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)- Testis, Ovary, Liver, Stomach, Pancreas, Lung
Neuron -Specific Enolase ( NSE)-Neuroblastoma, Lung
NSE is associated with several cancers, but it is used most often to monitor treatment in patients with neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)-Prostate
Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP)- Prostate, Testicular, Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
These tests are for individuals who wish to work preventively in their health & longevity.
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